GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF GUM TURPENTINE

Brief Overview
Turpentine, also called spirit of turpentine, oil of turpentine, wood turpentine or gum turpentine is a fluid obtained by the distillation of resin obtained from trees, mainly pine trees. It is composed of terpenes, mainly monoterpenes alpha-pinene and beta-pinene. It has a paint-like odour. Turpentine is a transparent clear oily liquid that is water white to slight yellow in color.

Turpentine is also used as a source of raw materials in the synthesis of fragrant chemical commercial compounds such as camphor, linalool, alpha-terpineol, and geraniol. These products are usually produced from alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, two of the chief chemical components of turpentine. Its components can be further separated via steam distillation, fractional distillation and extractive distillation.

The market for turpentine and other pine-derived chemicals is forecasted to grow to $4.8 Billion by 2020, at a Compounded Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of around 4.7%. This is indicative of a shift in demand away from fossil fuels, to a renewable source of raw materials from living pine trees.

Gum Turpentine is made from distilling the resinous gum from pine trees. Gum turpentine usually contains a small amount of sticky residue, which can be imparted to a painting if this kind of turpentine is used in large quantities. It may remain in the layers of paint, inhibiting proper drying and, in time, causing discoloration. Unless cost is a serious consideration, I do not recommend using gum turpentine with artist-grade paints and media. It is, however, perfectly acceptable for cleaning tools and brushes.

Turpentine is double distilled to remove the last bit of residue from the pine-tree gum. This thinner is ideal for oil paints and media because it does the job and then evaporates from the paint film without a trace. Artists often buy the finest paints and media and then use the cheapest thinners. This is like buying a Rolls Royce and putting kerosene in the gas tank. There are areas where compromises can be made, but they should be made with common sense.

Turpentine (also called spirit of turpentine, oil of turpentine, wood turpentine, gum turpentine) is a fluid obtained by the distillation of resin obtained from trees, mainly pine trees. It is composed of terpenes, mainly the monoterpenes alpha-pinene and beta-pinene. It has a potent odor similar to that of nail polish remover. It is sometimes known colloquially as turps, but this more often refers to turpentine substitute (or mineral turpentine).

The word turpentine is formed (via French and Latin) from the Greek word terebinthine, the name of a species of tree, the terebinth tree, from whose sap the spirit was originally distilled.

Manufacturing Process 
Turpentine oil is generally produced in countries with extensive number of pine trees. Turpentines from Europe are derived from the cluster pine (P. pinaster) and the Scotch pine (P. sylvestris), whereas the turpentines from the United States are derived from the longleaf pine (P. palustris) and the slash pine (P. caribaea).
Turpentine oil is classified according to the way it is produced. Sulfate turpentine, used widely in the chemicals industry, is obtained as a by-product of the kraft when wood pulp is cooked during the course of kraft paper manufacture. Wood turpentine is obtained by the steam distillation of shredded bits of dead pine wood, while gum turpentine results from the distillation of the exudate of the living pine tree obtained by tapping. Tapping the live pine tree would yield crude turpentine that typically contains 65% gum rosin and 18% gum turpentine. Gum turpentine consists of various constituents which can be further separated by fractional distillation and extractive distillation.
Tapping live pine trees would yield crude turpentine in the form of resin that contains gum rosin and gum turpentine.

 
The gum turpentine and its terpine components are eluted from the resin by distillation, leaving gum rosin as a solid product.

Further fractional distillation will separate gum turpentine into its components. Some of its components are isomers and have very close boiling points. As such, extractive distillation is required to separate these components.

HISTORY OF GUM TURPENTINE

In 1648, the newly formed NorrlSndska TjSrkompaniet (The Wood Tar Company of North Sweden) was granted sole export privileges for the country by the King of Sweden. As Stockholm grew in importance, pine tar trading concentrated at this port and all the barrels were marked “Stockholm Tar”. By 1900, NorrlSndska TjSrkompaniet had lost its control of the pine tar export business, and other exporters were again working out of other ports and marking their product accordingly. Nevertheless, over the centuries “Stockholm Tar” has come to mean a high quality light colored wood tar.

Gamble describes one of the earliest Swedish methods of making tar in Norrland (Northern Sweden). The peasants dug up and cleaned the roots of Swedish pine trees (Pinus silvestris) in the late summer. They then transported the roots to the burn site where they were split and stacked to weather during the winter.

The ‘dale’ or burning ground, was built of logs in a scientific manner. It was built on a slope which sometimes forms one side, in the shape of a funnel, with a spout at the lower end of the slope. The outer walls of the ‘dale’ were built with logs split in two, and a layer of earth was then placed thereon before the interior was lined, either with clay, iron sheet, or thick cardboard.”

In the summer, the split roots or fatwood were stacked in the kiln and covered with peat and turf. Brush wood was used to provide heat, but the heat was controlled so that the remaining fibers were not burned and the roots give up their liquid. This tar was high in turpentine and was in great demand.3 By the turn of the 20th century , this traditional way competed with more modern methods of production. Although it produced higher quality tar, it was labor intensive and could not be competitive in the world market.

INDRUSTRIAL USES
The two primary uses of turpentine in industry are as a solvent and as a source of materials for organic synthesis. As a solvent, turpentine is used for thinning oil-based paints, for producing varnishes, and as a raw material for the chemical industry. Its industrial use as a solvent in industrialized nations has largely been replaced by the much cheaper turpentine substitutes distilled from crude oil. Canada balsam, also called Canada turpentine or balsam of fir, is a turpentine which is made from the resin of the balsam fir. Venice turpentine is produced from the Western Larch Larix occidentalis. Turpentine is also used as a source of raw materials in the synthesis of fragrant chemical compounds. Commercially used camphor, linalool, alpha-terpineol, and geraniol are all usually produced from alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, which are two of the chief chemical components of turpentine. These pinenes are separated and purified by distillation. The mixture of diterpenes and triterpenes that is left as residue after turpentine distillation is sold as rosin.Turpentine is also added to many cleaning and sanitary products due to its antiseptic properties and its “clean scent”.

Material for Organic Synthesis
Gum turpentine is used in solvents and as a source of materials for organic synthesis. As a solvent, turpentine is used for thinning oil-based paints, for producing varnishes, and as a raw material for the chemical industry. Its industrial use as a solvent in industrialized nations has largely been replaced by the much cheaper turpentine substitutes distilled from crude oil.

 

 

Fragrance Industry
It is used in a source of raw materials in the synthesis of fragrant chemical compounds. Commercially used camphor, linalool, alpha-terpineol, and geraniol are all usually produced from alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, which are two of the chief chemical components of turpentine. These pinenes are separated and purified by distillation. The mixture of diterpenes and triterpenes that is left as residue after turpentine distillation is sold as rosin.

Medicinal elixir
Turpentine oil which is derived from gum turpentine is used for toothaches (applied to skin), joint, muscle and nerve pain (applied to skin), lung problems (inhaled) and various other conditions.

Cleaning products
Added to many cleaning and sanitary products due to its antiseptic properties and its “clean scent”.

MAIN USES

  • Can be dissolved easily in many organic solvents.
  • Has special chemical activity.
  • An important raw material for the production of paper, coatings, inks, rubber, soaps, electronic industrial products, food grade ester gum, and rosin ester resins

PRODUCT SPECIFICATION

PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION
Synonyms : Oil of turpentine, terpene, dipanol, gum spirits, wood turpentine, turps.
CAS No.: : 8006-64-2
Molar mass : 136 g/mol
Chemical Formula : C10H6
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
MELTING POINT : -60 ~ -50 °C
Boiling Point : 50-180 °C
SALES SPECIFICATION
APPEARANCE : transparent, anhydrous, no foreign matter, no suspension
Color : Not deeper than water-white & water-clear
Density D20/4 : 0.870 max
Refractive Index N20/4 : 1.4670-1.4710
Initial Distilling Point °C : 150 min
Distilling Volume below 170°C : 90 %
Acid Value mgKOH/g : 0.5 max
TRANSPORTATION
PACKING : in galvanized iron drum of about 150/175kgs net each, 80drums/14mt or 120drums/18mt per 20’ft container.
Must be kept away from heat and flame.
HAZARD CLASS : 3.3
UN NO. : 1299

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