turpentine - tradeasia

Brief Overview

Gum turpentine is a fluid obtained by the distillation of resin obtained from trees, mainly pine trees. It is composed of terpenes, mainly monoterpenes alpha-pinene and beta-pinene. It has a paint-like odor and an appearance of transparent clear oily liquid that is water white to slightly yellow in color. The word turpentine is formed (via French and Latin) from the Greek word terebinthine, the name of a species of tree, the terebinth tree, from whose sap the spirit was originally distilled.  It is used as a source of raw materials in the synthesis of fragrant chemical commercial compounds such as camphor, linalool, alpha-terpineol, and geraniol. These products are usually produced from alpha-pinene and beta-pinene. The components can be further separated via steam distillation, fractional distillation, and extractive distillation.



Gum Turpentine Manufacturing Process

pine trees forestTurpentine oil ispine trees tapping generally produced in countries with an extensive number of pine trees. The materials that obtained from Europe are derived from the cluster pine (P. pinaster) and the Scotch pine (P. sylvestris), whereas ones from the United States are derived from the longleaf pine (P. palustris) and the slash pine (P. caribaea). Turpentine oil is classified according to the way it is produced. Sulfate turpentine, used widely in the chemicals industry, is obtained as a by-product of the kraft when the wood pulp is cooked during the course of kraft paper manufacture. Wood turpentine is obtained by the steam distillation of shredded bits of dead pine wood, while gum turpentine results from the distillation of the exudate of the living pine tree obtained by tapping. Tapping the live pine tree would yield crude turpentine that typically contains gum components (65% rosin and 18% turpentine which consists of various constituents which can be further separated by fractional distillation and extractive distillation). This step will separate it into its components some are isomers and have very close boiling points. As such, extractive distillation is required to separate these components.

manufacturing process

In 1648, the newly formed NorrlSndska TjSrkompaniet (The Wood Tar Company of North Sweden) was granted sole export privileges for the country by the King of Sweden. As Stockholm grew in importance, pine tar trading concentrated at this port and all the barrels were marked “Stockholm Tar”. By 1900, NorrlSndska TjSrkompaniet had lost its control of the pine tar export business, and other exporters were again working out of other ports and marking their product accordingly. Nevertheless, over the centuries “Stockholm Tar” has come to mean a high quality light colored wood tar. Gamble describes one of the earliest Swedish methods of making tar in Norrland (Northern Sweden). The peasants dug up and cleaned the roots of Swedish pine trees (Pinus silvestris) in the late summer. They then transported the roots to the burn site where they were split and stacked to weather during the winter. The ‘dale’ or burning ground, was built of logs in a scientific manner. It was built on a slope which sometimes forms one side, in the shape of a funnel, with a spout at the lower end of the slope. The outer walls of the ‘dale’ were built with logs split in two, and a layer of earth was then placed thereon before the interior was lined, either with clay, iron sheet, or thick cardboard.” In the summer, the split roots or fatwood were stacked in the kiln and covered with peat and turf. Brush wood was used to provide heat, but the heat was controlled so that the remaining fibers were not burned and the roots give up their liquid. This tar was high in turpentine and was in great demand.3 By the turn of the 20th century , this traditional way competed with more modern methods of production. Although it produced higher quality tar, it was labor intensive and could not be competitive in the world market.

Solvent Industry

Turpentine is a solvent for many alkyd resins and has more solvency than mineral spirits or odorless mineral spirits. Its high solvent strength makes it the best choice for thinning oils and natural resins. It is considered to be a better solvent than mineral spirits, and the best solvent for natural resins, such as dammar and mastic also it readily dissolves most of the natural varnish resins. It is recommended for artists' painting or varnish applications over other products.


Chemical Intermediates

In the chemical industry, it is used as a source of raw materials in the synthesis of fragrant chemical commercial compounds such as camphor, linalool, alpha-terpineol, and geraniol. These products are usually produced from alpha-pinene and beta-pinene.

Synonyms:terpene, dipanol, gum spirits, turps.
CAS No.::8006-64-2
Molar mass:136 g/mol
Chemical Formula:C10H6
MELTING POINT:-60 ~ -50 °C
Boiling Point:50-180 °C
APPEARANCE:transparent, anhydrous, no foreign matter, no suspension
Color:Not deeper than water-white & water-clear
Density D20/4:0.870 max
Refractive Index N20/4:1.4670-1.4710
Initial Distilling Point °C:150 min
Distilling Volume below 170°C:90 %
Acid Value mgKOH/g:0.5 max
PACKING:in galvanized iron drum of about 150/175kgs net each, 80drums/14mt or 120drums/18mt per 20’ft container. Must be kept away from heat and flame.
UN NO.:1299

ACR_App_file_documentGum Turpentine TDS/SDSACR_App_file_documentGum Turpentine MSDS